History

Lawrence's original Cyclotron, for which he received a patent and the Nobel Prize.



Lawrence's original cyclotron design was limited to energies where relativistic effects were not important. The third generation cyclotron included "sector-focusing" to allow higher energies to be obtained. The 88-Inch Cyclotron was based on Lawrence's design of a sector-focused cyclotron for the MTA project at Livermore.



1500 man-hours of work were necessary to assemble the trim coils which help regulate the strength and shape of the accelerator's magnetic field.



Discussing the cyclotron magnet (seen in the background) are Dr. Elmer Kelly, physicist in charge of the 88-Inch Cyclotron and Warren Dexter, electrical coordinator for the cyclotron project.



Pleased smiles break out on the faces of (l. to r.) Bob Smith, Hans Willax, and Elmer Kelly during the 88-Inch Cyclotron's trial run on December 12, 1961.



The 88-Inch Cyclotron.



Changing trim coil power supplies.



Accelerator physicist Dave Clark works on the Cyclotron.



The magnetic spectrometer at the 88-Inch Cyclotron with Bernie Harvey and Fred Becchetti. The beam enters through pipe on right and strikes target. Particles coming from the nuclear reaction are analyzed by the spectrometer magnet and then detected and identified.



This sodium iodide crystal was used to study the properties of rapidly rotating nuclei through the gamma radiation they emitted as they slowed down.




The polarized ion source and axial injection system.



The Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) was used to measure the properties of rare, short-lived nuclei.



Fluorine-18 produced at the 88-Inch Cyclotron was used to study metabolic rates in healthy and malignant brain tissue. Note the lesion in the lower right side of the images.



The first Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in the United States replaced the internal ion source. This allowed the 88-Inch to run much heavier ions.



The High Energy Resolution Array (HERA) consisted of a central BGO ball and 21 Compton suppressed germanium detectors for gamma ray detection. This array discovered the first superdeformed nuclei.



With the commissioning of the Advanced ECR ion source, the 88-Inch became increasingly used by NASA, defense laboratories, and the aerospace industry for studies of the effects of radiation on microelectronics and the calibration of instruments for space missions.



Gammasphere was the world's premier array for gamma ray detection and attracted users from all over the world.



Scientist I. Y. Lee working on Gammasphere.



Professor Darleane Hoffman stands next to the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS), the latest tool in studying the chemistry and physics of the heaviest elements.



Plasma field inside the IRIS ion source.



Element 106 was named Seaborgium after Nobel prize winner Glenn Seaborg when it was confirmed in an experiment at the 88-Inch.



Inserting the plasma tube into the VENUS ECR Ion Source are Don Lester, Tom Perry, and Bob Shannon. VENUS is currently the most advanced ion source in the world.



Jim Morel conducts a tour of the 88-Inch Cyclotron's control room.