Lawrence's original Cyclotron, for which he received a patent and the Nobel Prize. Lawrence's original
cyclotron design was limited to energies where relativistic effects were
not important. The third generation cyclotron included
"sector-focusing" to allow higher energies to be obtained. The 88-Inch
Cyclotron was based on Lawrence's design of a sector-focused cyclotron
for the MTA project at Livermore. 1500 man-hours of work were
necessary to assemble the trim coils which help regulate the strength
and shape of the accelerator's magnetic field.Discussing the cyclotron
magnet (seen in the background) are Dr. Elmer Kelly, physicist in charge
of the 88-Inch Cyclotron and Warren Dexter, electrical coordinator for
the cyclotron project.
Pleased smiles break out on
the faces of (l. to r.) Bob Smith, Hans Willax, and Elmer Kelly during
the 88-Inch Cyclotron's trial run on December 12, 1961.
The 88-Inch Cyclotron.Changing trim coil power supplies.
Accelerator physicist Dave Clark works on the Cyclotron.
The magnetic spectrometer at
the 88-Inch Cyclotron with Bernie Harvey and Fred Becchetti. The beam
enters through pipe on right and strikes target. Particles coming from
the nuclear reaction are analyzed by the spectrometer magnet and then
detected and identified.
This sodium iodide crystal
was used to study the properties of rapidly rotating nuclei through the
gamma radiation they emitted as they slowed down.
The polarized ion source and axial injection system.
The Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) was used to measure the properties of rare, short-lived nuclei.
Fluorine-18 produced at the
88-Inch Cyclotron was used to study metabolic rates in healthy and
malignant brain tissue. Note the lesion in the lower right side of the
The first Electron Cyclotron
Resonance (ECR) ion source in the United States replaced the internal
ion source. This allowed the 88-Inch to run much heavier ions.
The High Energy Resolution
Array (HERA) consisted of a central BGO ball and 21 Compton suppressed
germanium detectors for gamma ray detection. This array discovered the
first superdeformed nuclei.
With the commissioning of
the Advanced ECR ion source, the 88-Inch became increasingly used by
NASA, defense laboratories, and the aerospace industry for studies of
the effects of radiation on microelectronics and the calibration of
instruments for space missions.
Gammasphere was the world's premier array for gamma ray detection and attracted users from all over the world.
Scientist I. Y. Lee working on Gammasphere.
Professor Darleane Hoffman
stands next to the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS), the latest tool
in studying the chemistry and physics of the heaviest elements.
Plasma field inside the IRIS ion source.
Element 106 was named Seaborgium after Nobel prize winner Glenn Seaborg when it was confirmed in an experiment at the 88-Inch.
Inserting the plasma tube
into the VENUS ECR Ion Source are Don Lester, Tom Perry, and Bob
Shannon. VENUS is currently the most advanced ion source in the world.
Jim Morel conducts a tour of the 88-Inch Cyclotron's control room.